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Trading with developing nations

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Details on the UK’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences.


Trade preferences reduce or remove rates of duty (tariffs) on imports from eligible developing countries into the UK.

Eligible developing countries can get trade preferences through the UK Generalised Scheme of Preferences ( GSP).

Every effort has been made to ensure that the tariff information in this document is accurate. The Department for International Trade does not accept liability for any errors, omissions or misleading statements. The tariffs in this dataset are subject to change.

The UK GSPhas 3 frameworks:

  • Least Developed Countries Framework
  • General Framework
  • Enhanced Framework

The UK GSP frameworks

Least developed countries framework

This framework is for countries that the UN classifies as Least Developed Countries. Imports from these countries have quota-free access and nil rates of import duty on all goods other than arms and ammunition.

  • Afghanistan
  • Angola
  • Bangladesh
  • Benin
  • Bhutan
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Central African Rep
  • Cambodia
  • Chad
  • Comoros
  • Congo, Democratic Rep
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Gambia
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Haiti
  • Kiribati
  • Laos
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Nepal
  • Niger
  • Rwanda
  • Săo Tomé & Príncipe
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Sudan
  • Sudan
  • Tanzania
  • Timor-Leste
  • Togo
  • Tuvalu
  • Uganda
  • Vanuatu
  • Yemen
  • Zambia

Note on Cambodia

Cambodia currently still receives quota-free access and nil rates of import duty on all goods other than arms and ammunitions under the UK GSP. The UK will continue to raise human rights issues with the Government of Cambodia and continue to monitor the situation

General Framework

This framework is for countries that the World Bank classifies as low-income and lower-middle income countries.

Imports from these countries have reduced rates of import duty on certain goods outlined in the UK GSPtariff rates.

  • Algeria
  • Congo
  • Cook Islands
  • Ghana
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Jordan
  • Kenya
  • Micronesia
  • Nigeria
  • Niue
  • Syria
  • Tajikistan
  • Vietnam

The following countries have signed trade agreements with the UK, however they may still receive GSP market access during the transition to their new trade arrangement.

  • Ghana
  • Jordan
  • Kenya
  • Vietnam

Enhanced Framework

This framework is for countries that are:

  • classified by the World Bank as low-income and lower-middle income countries
  • economically vulnerable due to a lack of export diversification and a low level of integration with the international trading system

They must also implement 27 conventions relating to:

  • human and labour rights
  • the environment
  • good governance

Imports from these countries have a nil rate of import duty on certain goods outlined in the UK GSPtariff rates.

  • Armenia
  • Bolivia
  • Cape Verde
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Mongolia
  • Pakistan
  • Philippines
  • Sri Lanka
  • Uzbekistan

Note on Armenia

Armenia is now classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank. So it will be removed from the UK’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences on 1 January 2022.

Rules of origin

To receive GSP rates of import duty, goods must originate from a GSP country. Rules of origin are the criteria which establish the country of origin of imported goods.

A list of operations which should be carried out on materials to gain originating status can be found in The Customs (Origin of Chargeable Goods: Trade Preference Scheme) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020.

Importers will have to pay import duty at the full (non- GSP) rate, if checks carried out by HMRC reveal that the goods do not satisfy the GSP rules of origin.

Derogations from the rules of origin

A derogation can allow more relaxed rules of origin to specific goods originating in specific countries.

A derogation may be granted where:

  • factors temporarily deprive a GSPcountry of the ability to comply with the rules of origin, where they could do so previously
  • a GSPcountry requires time to prepare itself to comply with the rules of origin.

A derogation is time limited, for example; for the length of time needed for the GSPcountry to comply with the rule of origin.

A derogation request should be made by the GSPcountry, in writing, to the Secretary of State. It should state the reasons why the derogation is requested and should contain supporting documents.


Cumulation is when materials originating from specific countries can be incorporated in the products from a GSP country and then considered as originating in that GSP country. This can occur as long as the processing done in the GSP country goes beyond minimal levels.

The UK cumulation arrangements include:

  • bilateral
  • regional
  • extended
  • cumulation with the EU, Norway and Switzerland

Materials falling within Chapters 1 to 24 of the Harmonized System which originate from Norway or Switzerland are not covered by cumulation.

The UK will continue to permit materials from the EU, Norway and Switzerland to be further processed or incorporated in a finished product in a GSP beneficiary country.

The UK GSP replicates the effects of the EU non-manipulation rule. Therefore, goods entering the UK via the EU, as a transit country, may still be eligible for GSP preferences under the UK GSP.

Evidence requirements

Goods that meet the UK GSP rules of origin requirements are eligible to claim a GSP rate of import duty on the basis of a valid proof of origin. A valid proof of origin must be either of the following:

  • a GSP Form A - which does not need to be stamped and signed by an authority designated by the GSP country: you can submit a copy
  • an origin declaration - which must include information to enable the identification of an originating good

For goods released for free circulation in the UK up to 12 months after 31 December 2020, HMRC will accept a Registered Exporter System ( REX) statement on origin as proof that goods originate from a GSP country.

The REXstatement on origin must:

  • contain, where applicable, the valid REX registration number of the exporter
  • be dated no later than 31 December 2020

GSP goods entering the UK from a customs warehouse in an EU member state

The UK does not have an agreement in place with the EU to allow traders to use a replacement proof of origin to redistribute GSP goods between the EU and the UK.

Goods originating from GSPcountries that simply travel through or are stored/split in the EU before being released into free circulation in UK may still be eligible for the UK GSP. These goods must meet the ‘non-manipulation’ rule:

  • the goods must be the same goods as were exported from the GSPcountry - they must not have been altered or transformed in anyway
  • goods must be kept under customs supervision at all times in the country of transit - the goods must not have been released into free circulation in the EU
  • the goods must meet the UK GSPorigin rules and will need to be accompanied by a proof of origin made out by the exporter in the GSPcountry in accordance with UK GSPevidence requirements

GSP goods sent to an EU member state from a customs warehouse in the UK

The UK does not have an agreement in place with the EU to allow UK businesses to make out a replacement proof of origin to redistribute GSP goods between the UK and the EU.

Goods originating from a beneficiary country of the EU GSPthat are imported into a customs warehouse in the UK may still be eligible for the EU GSP, subject to EU rules.

To remain eligible, goods must meet the conditions of the EU GSPnon-alteration (non-manipulation) rule and be accompanied by a valid EU GSPproof of origin made out by the exporter in the GSPcountry. The goods must not enter free circulation in the UK.

Suspending GSP rates

Country graduation

When a country no longer meets the relevant eligibility requirements it will be removed from the relevant GSP framework. The UK will provide a graduation period of at least 3 years before removing a country from the relevant framework. This is known as country graduation. A country will enter another GSP framework if it meets the relevant requirements.

Trade arrangement suspension

GSP rates may be suspended for countries once they implement a new trade agreement with the UK, which provides them with equivalent or better preferential market access than the GSP.

These suspension notices suspend some countries from the UK’s GSP:

  • from 31 December 2020
  • from 1 December 2021

Goods graduation

Preferential rates of import duty may be suspended on a specific product group that is already highly competitive without trade preferences. This is known as goods graduation.

The UK’s first list of graduated goods is valid until the end of 2022. The next list of graduated goods will take effect in 2023. It will be reviewed every 3 years and published on this page.

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